#148 – Writing that puts a reader in the story

“The best way to tell the story is to really try to give the reader a sense that they know the person they’re reading about.”

Steve Friess, a freelance journalist and former staff writer for Politico and Knight Wallace fellow at the University of Michigan, found himself on the receiving end of the story opportunity of a lifetime in the form of a cardboard box filled with hundreds of letters.

Capt. David Wilsey served as an anesthesiologist during World War II and wrote letters to his wife, Emily, back at home. The letters were discovered by Friess’ friend, the doctor’s son, in 2009 after both David and Emily Wilsey had died.

Steve Friess

Freelance journalist Steve Friess uses long-form writing to tell one family’s emotional connection to the liberation of the Dachau concentration camp.

The letters revealed a man who wrote beautiful, passionate, literate letters filled with details of the war he’d never discussed with his family.

Thanks to his friendship with Wilsey’s son, Terry, and discussions with his sisters, Friess was able to make copies of several dozen of the letters, which he’s used as the foundation of a 5,000-word article recently published by The New Republic in a gripping article, “A Liberator, But Never Free”.

Letters tell personal story of Dachau liberation

Wilsey was among the soldiers who arrived at the Dachau concentration camp in May 1945 during the camp’s liberation, and in several letters, he stressed the importance of the public learning the truth about what was going on in Hitler’s Germany and captured territories. Other than those letters, he never discussed what he’d witnessed with his family.

Friess said the task of selecting which letters to read, which to copy, which to pull from and use as source material for his piece, was staggering.

“You can dip in and out of these letters,” he says. “You can read one of them as a historical document. You can go directly to May 8, 1945 and read his account of going into Dachau, and they’re really interesting as historical documents,” Friess said. “But if you read dozens of these letters in chronology over the course of several months or years, that’s how you really get to know him and that’s how you’re able to detect a shift in the way he is. You see it very clearly the minute he starts writing from Dachau, he’s just 10 times angrier, as you might expect.”

This isn’t Friess’ first go-round with multifaceted and complex narrative. Previously, he spent several years researching the overlapping or fully disconnected network of registration requirements for sexual offenders, resulting in a piece published by TakePart.com earlier this year. His journey there began when a victim of sexual assault suggested Friess examine boxer Mike Tyson’s registration on the sex offender list in Nevada.

“In 2009, Mike Tyson was considered to be noncompliant by the state of Nevada’s registry, but the city of Henderson has one too and he was perfectly properly registered there,” Friess said. “He also was nowhere to be found in the registry of Indiana where he was convicted; he was in the registry in Florida where he had lived but that registration said he lived in Arizona. Arizona had no reference for him at all, and so on. It was this big mess. This was one example of somebody who you and I could find out where he was tomorrow just by looking him up on Twitter,” whereas other victims might not be able to get any kind of information on their attacker.”

Amber Healy

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#148 – Politics of fact-checking campaigns

Given enough time and resources, all reporters would take great pride in checking even the smallest details in their work. Unfortunately, given the constraints of time and space, that isn’t happening as often as it used to, but some newsrooms have earned acclaim for their dedication to the truth.

Mark Stencel, a former managing editor for digital news at NPR and senior editor at both The Washington Post and Congressional Quarterly, has authored a report for the American Press Institute on the importance of fact-checking, especially in presidential campaigns.

Mark Stencel

Mark Stencel, a former managing editor for digital news at NPR, writes about fact-checking for the American Press Institute. (Photo by Michael O’Connell)

He points to the 1988 election as a kind of turning point. “The way advertising was coming across in that campaign sparked a real discussion on how to respond to [negative advertising that featured less-than-true claims]. My first boss in Washington, David Broder, started columnizing this,” going on a “crusade to more aggressively fact-check advertising claims. That’s when things really got going,” he said.

Soon, other reporters, including Brooks Jackson of The Wall Street Journal, started doing fact checking sessions for major news organizations, including CNN, to help delineate the truth from exaggerations.

Today there are three major fact-checking operations in the United States: PolitiFact, FactCheck.org and The Washington Post’s Fact Checker, each of which has developed a system for taking a claim, reviewing its origins and validity and explaining to readers what’s true and what’s less-than-truthful.

“Those three sites have set the standard,” Stencel said. “To take on that much reporting and maintain it day in and day out for as long as they have, at this point, is just a remarkable journalistic accomplishment.”

In particular, he praises the team at PolitiFact, created at the then-St. Petersburg Times during the 2008 presidential election. With just a few people in their Washington, D.C., newsroom, the staff there wondered how they could cover the campaign differently than every other newsroom in the country.

“They make this big bet that, rather than jumping on the airplanes and trying to do the same story as everybody else was doing, let’s instead focus all that energy on something that we can make a difference in, and that was fact-checking,” Stencel said. “It certainly made their coverage stand out; it certainly won them a Pulitzer. It’s a great example of the distinctive power of doing fact checking and what that can mean for a newsroom that’s trying to stand out.”

Of course, Stencel would like to see other formats and styles of journalism give fact-checking a try.

“I’d love to see fact-checking of business news or claims,” he said. “I’d love to see fact-checking in sports. Can you imagine fact-checking the trash talk? It would be fantastic.”

Amber Healy

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#147 – A newsroom filled with designers

Don’t write in the CMS. It’s practically a meme on Twitter.
“It’s an understandable argument,” said Zach Seward, vice president for product and executive editor at Quartz, the business-focused digital startup. “Too many people have been burned by a lost post. So many CMSes are a pain to use. The software is cumbersome and not worth your time. Totally understandable sentiment, but one which when we launched we decided to flip on its head and mandate that every writer at Quartz writes in the CMS.”
Zach Seward is VP of product and executive editor at Quartz. (Contributed photo)

Zach Seward is VP of product and executive editor at Quartz. (Contributed photo)

Seward spoke Saturday, April 11, at the 2015 Society for News Design workshop in Washington, D.C., about his company’s unusual approach to design.
“I’m  a firm believer that your writing should adapt as much as possible to the specific medium in which it’s appearing,” Seward said. “That the closer the writer is to the means of production, the better the finished good, the better the results and readers can tell. They can tell if this thing was written for the Web or was written for print or was written for a phone or desktop.”
To help get those writers as close to the finished good as possible and help them to become true designers, a news website’s CMS has to be as close to WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) as possible. Basically, this means that when a writer places a story or a graphic, that’s how it’s going to look on the published page.
“The writer’s intentional choice to select this photo, to place it at this particular point in the story, to choose to set it off from the text instead of inline, they may seem like mere esthetic choices, but in fact, they are as essential to the writing of the story as communication as the text of the story itself,” Seward said. “And the fact that we require our writers to make these choices, to find the photos themselves, to insert it in the specific place and not to make that a separate part of the production process is fundamentally what distinguishes the type of journalism we’re trying to do from some other places.”

In this week’s podcast, Zach Seward, VP of Product and executive editor at Quartz, talks about the digital startup’s approach to design. The thesis for his presentation at the 2015 Society for News Design’s workshop in Washington, D.C., is that everyone it Quartz — writers included — are designers. He also talks about the lessons learned from Quartz’s three redesigns and the core principles that guide them in their decision making about design.


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#146 – Games bring play, engagement to complex stories

Journalists can learn a lot from game designers about storytelling and keeping an audience engaged.
“I think the real opportunity in news is to understand the way we approach problems in games and how we look to solve them,” said Lindsay Grace, associate professor at American University and director of AU’s Game Lab and Studio.
Among Grace’s many achievements is founding Miami University’s Persuasive Play Lab, a research group that examined how games could be used to alter people’s opinions and interest. He also helped launch AU’s new Master of Arts in Game Design program.
Lindsay Grace is an associate professor at American University and director of AU's Game Lab and Studio. (Photo by Michael O'Connell)

Lindsay Grace is an associate professor at American University and director of AU’s Game Lab and Studio. (Photo by Michael O’Connell)

For Grace, journalism and game design intersect in the space between editorial games and persuasive play.
“The idea is to try and engage people with current topics by framing some of those challenges, affecting people’s perspectives by offering them a game experience,” he said.
Grace described several ways in which journalists could use games to inform the stories they are writing.
“I think one of the things that’s most sort of promising these days is using games as kind of an inroads to the complexity of a particular story,” he said. “We know from years and years of making digital games in particular is that they’re really good at changing people’s perspectives, for giving them an opportunity to sort of put themselves in someone else’s shoes.”
Despite all the bells and whistles that digital technology adds to gaming, the idea of using a game to persuade people is not a new concept. The Monopoly board game, for example, was designed as a persuasive game.
“It was designed to help people understand a theory called Georgist economics and how landlording can actually create sort of an impoverished situation,” Grace said. “And we’ve had that tradition. What people have begun to realize is that we can really produce some really compelling entries into`complex topics through games.”

Games help break down complex stories

During a presentation at the recent South By Southwest conference, Grace mentioned a number of current games that are trying to help people understand how government works.
“There are about three or four games these days that all afford people the ability to balance the federal budget,” he said. “The idea is to make it a play experience, but at the same time give people an understanding of how complex that task is, and that’s sort of the rhetoric of those games.”
Designer Molleindustria, for example, uses  games to break down complex stories. “He makes games about the politics behind mobile phones, producing for IOS devices and also games around large corporations and how they operate and giving people that perspective,” Grace said.
Beyond helping to break down a complex story, a good game can draw a reader deeper into that story, so that they want to learn more.
“The science of game design is really about engagement and understanding how to compel people to want to play more,” Grace said. “And so, we’ve got a nice, strong tradition in engagement design. That’s a lot of what I teach. It’s not sort of the standards of game design, but it’s about how to attract and audience, keep an audience and keep them compelled to want to stay in the world that you’ve created for them.”
In this week’s podcast, It’s All Journalism hosts Michael O’Connell and Nicole Ogrysko talk to Lindsay Grace, game designer and associate professor at American University’s Game Lab and Studio. Grace talks about the intersection of news and games design, and how journalists can use games to engage readers and tell stories. He also talks about American University’s new Master of Arts in Game Design program.

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#145 – Rob King: No B Teams at ESPN

There is no B Team in Rob King’s world.

A far cry from his days as a copy aid at The Washington Post, King is the senior vice president of SportsCenter and news at ESPN. Speaking at the recent Society for News Design workshop at the Newseum in Washington, D.C., he peeled back the curtains to share some sage advice on the changing newsroom, how his network launched a fully rebranded digital, broadcast and print product and why sometimes the people who might get overlooked should be given a tremendous opportunity.

In a presentation peppered with sports references, King recalled how he originally wanted to be a cartoonist before landing at the Post, followed by a stint at a newspaper in Danville, Illinois, where he stayed for “one year, two weeks and three days.” Admitting that the path to his current job “really makes no sense,” he reminded the crowd it’s alright if the next step in their careers is unknown.

Rob King at SNDDC

Rob King, senior vice president for news and SportsCenter at ESPN, gives the final keynote speech at the 2015 Society for News Design workshop in Washington, D.C. (Photo by Jennifer-Leigh Oprihory)

“The best advice I ever got: It’s gonna work out, you just don’t know how yet,” he said. “It’s OK that you don’t know now.” This is especially true for college students about to graduate, but also for those in the process of changing careers or trying to navigate the transition from traditional media to the digital world.

The world of media is changing quickly, and ESPN is not only trying to change the way it brings information to its audience but is learning what its audience cares about in addition to sports, he said.

“We use Chartbeat to look at how stories are resonating on our site,” King said. “We’re also working with SpredFast, which allows us to monitor the activity of the 15 million @SportsCenter users to see what they’re up to. We’ve had occasions where, we found out the Kendrick Lamar mix tape was a big deal. If we reference that on air, we’re connecting with our audience” in a brand new way.

He encouraged people, especially in the early years of their career, to pay attention to design, to how a product looks in its environment. “In your younger careers, spend some time thinking about what does that look like, rather than just being like everyone else and being able to make stuff like everyone else. What is amazing and what’s unusual and what’s new? What can you dare yourself to do?”

Most important, King also focused on working as a team, encouraging those in a newsroom or other offices who might not otherwise be called upon to contribute to a big project. If there’s one group working on one platform or product, and another group working on something else, that immediately creates an A Team and a B Team.

“I would urge you to go back to your place of work and find the B Teams,” he said. “Do what you can to eradicate that. Being in the design team and walking around a newsroom, that was like being on a B Team. … Ideas have to come from everywhere. You should give yourself permission to say I want to sit at the big table.”

Amber Healy

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#144 – Vox founders look back at first year

Although Ezra Klein, one of the founders of Vox.com, considers himself something of a nihilist, he’s not that worried about polls that say large portions of the country still doesn’t understand the Affordable Care Act — a topic Vox and other news outlets have spent a lot of time and effort trying to explain.

Ezra Klein of Vox.com by Dan Archer

Ezra Klein of Vox.com has lots to say during his presentation at the annual Society for News Design workshop in Washington, D.C. (Art by Dan Archer/@archcomix)

“We talk a lot about left-right polarization in the media,” Klein said. “We talk a lot about the idea that people are cocooning in different kinds of information sources. … There’s another kind of polarization that we don’t talk about, which is interest/non-interest,” Klein said. “But it’s a very fundamental polarization. The difference between people who want to learn a lot about the news, who want to learn a lot about Obamacare, and people who don’t is profound.”

Sometimes, people just don’t want to know.

“It’s OK for people to not want to know everything about Obamacare,” he said. “American politics is not set up to require every citizen to spend their entire life reading the Affordable Care Act. We built a representative democracy, we have very sophisticated mechanisms for sorting information that people can use.”

The media’s role then is one of being the explainer of the news for those who are interested in hearing it.

“What we need to be doing in the media is making sure, one, that all the people who want to be informed can be informed,” he said. “And two, that being informed is not just straightforward and easy, but actually appealing and fun. I think we often get much too concerned with the idea that some people just don’t want to be reading political news. That’s OK.”

Get up, Start Up

Klein, who spoke with fellow Vox founder Yuri Victor at the recent Society for News Design workshop in Washington, D.C., said that Vox is still a young company and has a lot of room to grow in terms of becoming the type of resource for its readers that the founders hoped it would become.
The company is currently conducting an extensive overhaul of its cardstacks, the news explainer system it uses to present deep dives into a variety of  topics, from the Affordable Care Act to net neutrality to Passover.

“I think in the coming months, they’ll become a lot more useful even than they are today, but, that’s a slow process,” Klein said. “Figuring out how to do that. Figuring out how to make sure that it is there for the reader when they need it. That’s the stuff that’s the most exciting part of what we’re doing, but it’s also the one that doesn’t come as quickly.”

This week’s podcast is audio from a conversation between Ezra Klein and Yuri Victor, two of the founders of Vox.com, at the 2015 Society for News Design Workshop in Washington, D.C. Their discussion ranges from the ups and downs of launching a digital startup to Wikipedia, social media and the changing roles of journalists in the digital realm.

Michael O’Connell

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#143 – Comics create immersive experience

Dan Archer is a graphics journalist, using comics and immersive technology to tell stories of depth and tragedy.

Comics journalist Dan Archer uses his artwork to tell immersive stories. (Photo by Michael O'Connell)

Comics journalist Dan Archer uses his artwork to tell immersive stories. (Photo by Michael O’Connell)

The story Archer has been working on since last summer that’s garnered the greatest degree of attention for comics journalism and graphic storytelling in general is his coverage of the Michael Brown shooting in Ferguson, Missouri.

“Ferguson Firsthand” sprang out of Archer’s fellowship at the Donald W. Reynolds Journalism Institute at the University of Missouri.

“Obviously, it’s a completely, horrendously tragic incident and one that is by no means alone in the context of police shootings of African American men,” he said. “It happened 10 days after I arrived in Missouri. So, as any journalist, being two hours away, I had to go down and I went down and did some sketches. Medium was immediately interested in picking them up.”

Archer had already been using a virtual reality program on a project he was doing on human trafficking. So when he arrived in Ferguson, he began shooting 360-degree video. Combining that with 3-D imaging, he later adapted the story into an immersive narrative using Oculus Rift technology. This allowed readers to walk around inside the story and experience it as if they were on the ground in Ferguson.

“The best ‘truth’ or ‘path to truth’ isn’t through the perfectly cropped camera zoom,” Archer said. “It’s through people who were recording something else in the background or someone else that saw something that was out of the ordinary and it’s a composite that helps to either make or unsettle the idea of just one single truth.”

Human beings are wired to have subjective perspectives of something they observe. Archer tries to bridge those varying points of view by combining them into a single, immersive narrative.

“I find that by putting everything in one, single container, it sort of facilitates and understanding of that and forces the reader to make their own mind up,” he said. “And that’s what’s important.”

Michael O’Connell

Dan Archer spoke Saturday, April 11, at the 2015 Society for News Design conference in Washington, D.C. In this podcast, Archer discusses his philosophy about comics and journalism. He talks about the pursuit of truth and how important it is for journalists to remember that everyone who views an event is seeing it through their own perspective, prejudices and all.

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#142 – Richard Wurman plays it dumb

Richard Saul Wurman is no dummy. But, that doesn’t mean he can’t see the value of being dumb sometimes.

Richard Saul Wurman and Kris Viesselman present at keynote conversation during the 2015 Society for News Design's annual workshop in Washington, D.C. (Photo by Michael O'Connell)

Richard Saul Wurman and Kris Viesselman present at keynote conversation during the 2015 Society for News Design’s annual workshop in Washington, D.C. (Photo by Michael O’Connell)

Richard Saul Wurman and Kris Viesselman present at keynote conversation during the 2015 Society for News Design’s annual workshop in Washington, D.C. (Photo by Michael O’Connell)[/caption]

“What I embrace, basically, or what I’ve tried to have as a path in my life is to be the dumbest person in the room,” Wurman told an audience on Friday, April 10, during a keynote address at the Society of News Design’s annual workshop in Washington, D.C.

“I really like to suck out information from everybody else, and I listen to every word everybody says,” he said. “And it’s unsettling, because sometimes the words are really stupid and they’re inaccurate and some speakers are stupid and inaccurate. Just because you’re on the stage doesn’t mean you have any way to the truth. And I’m really obsessed with how stupid I am.”

At 80, Wurman, who Fortune magazine called an “intellectual hedonist” with a “hummingbird mind”, has spent a lifetime surrounding himself with smart people. An information architect, he’s also the author of 83 books, including “Information Anxiety” and the ACCESS city guides.

What Wurman is known primarily for these days is being the co-founder of the TED conferences, which routinely bring together experts in Technology, Entertainment and Design to share their ideas — in other words, the culmination of Wurman’s goal to surround himself and others with smart people.

This is a special podcast is part of It’s All Journalism’s coverage of the 2015 Society for News Design’s workshop in Washington, D.C. It’s a recording of a conversation between TED conference founder Richard Saul Wurman and Kris Viesselman, a designer and founder of Electric Ivy. The conversation was presented as a keynote address on Friday, April 10.

Michael O’Connell

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#141- KPCC makes one voter care

If every vote matters, every voter matters, too.

Kristen Muller, managing editor for newsgathering at Southern California Public Radio, station KPCC in Los Angeles, knew not to expect record high turnout during a recent municipal election. But when she realized some reporters in her own newsroom weren’t aware an election was on the horizon, it provided a little clarity on the average 9 percent voter turnout.

KPCC reporter Meghan McCarty canvasses the streets of Los Angeles with a sandwich board and a microphone. (KPCC photo)

KPCC reporter Meghan McCarty canvasses the streets of Los Angeles with a sandwich board and a microphone. (KPCC photo)

If a reporter wasn’t aware of the election, “surely many, many, many people don’t know,” she said. How could reporters inform their listeners of candidates’ positions on various hot-button local issues if reporters couldn’t discuss those issues with informed listeners?

Some brainstorming ensued and resulted in a simple goal: Find one person unsure of whether he or she was going to vote and make that person care about the election.

“We looked over census and voting data and looked at the people that were really unrepresented at the polls,” Muller said of how the station’s potential voter was selected.

“We imagined this non-voter would have to be someone who was under the age of 44, someone who’s a non-white voter, someone who has real interests that are affected by city decisions,” she said. They settled on Al, a chef and restaurateur, because he best represented someone “who had some real stakes in this election.”

And thus, #MakeAlCare was born. The station wanted its efforts to have a wide reach, so coming up with a hashtag for social media was a must. There was a methodical approach to researching and producing the series but it was not advocacy.

The subject of KPCC's Make Al Care campaign, Chef Al Gordon, is the founder of Community in Los Feliz. Like the majority of voters in Los Angeles, he doesn't come out for local elections. (Photo by Maya Sugarman/KPCC)

The subject of KPCC’s Make Al Care campaign, Chef Al Gordon, is the founder of Community in Los Feliz. Like the majority of voters in Los Angeles, he doesn’t come out for local elections. (Photo by Maya Sugarman/KPCC)

“We’re not advocating that you go out and vote one way or another,” Muller said. “We’re advocating that you get engaged. These are really big issues facing our city. … Increasingly, fewer and fewer people are making decisions for all of us.”

If anything, a series like #MakeAlCare was just another way in which KPCC carried out its mission.

“We’re public radio,” Muller said. “We’re here to serve the community. To serve the community, the community needs to know what’s happening.”

The power of the project was felt almost immediately: The day after the first story aired, Al was met at work by a few candidates running for local office. By the eve of the election, Al had opened his restaurant for a pre-election party.

“The victory is small,” Muller said, as Al did in fact vote in the March contests. “We didn’t turn around an election, we didn’t boost turnout in a significant way. But we got at least one more voter out to the polls.”

Amber Healy

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#140 – Restorative narrative: Tales of resiliency and recovery

You might have another excuse not to listen to your editor.

At a time where the “If it bleeds, it leads” mentality is especially pervasive in today’s major newsrooms, where the media preys on the shocking, traumatic and negative, there is a light in the darkness.

Images and Voices of Hope is a non-profit organization that believes the media can create a force for positive change. It’s a place where journalists can talk about the impact their stories have on a particular community, especially during the aftermath of a tragedy.

“Positive news or the ‘positive stories’ phrase really makes journalists cringe, and I can totally understand that,” said Mallary Tenore, managing director of Images and Voices of Hope.

Restorative narrative is not just ‘happy news’

“But I think people’s appetite for news is changing,” she said. “With that change, come the opportunities to tell the full story — not just telling the stories of what happened, but really looking at what’s possible.”

Mallary Tenore, managing director of Images and Voices of Hope, spreads the message of restorative narrative.

Mallary Tenore, managing director of Images and Voices of Hope, spreads the message of restorative narrative.

IVOH fosters a community where thoughtful, empathetic journalism is the name of the game. The organization has built most of its mission behind the idea of “restorative narrative.”

Tenore said a growing body of research has shown repeated exposure to negative emotions often expressed in traumatic news stories, people become more stressed, withdrawn and less social. It creates a culture of fear rather than resilience and community.

“But when people experience positive emotions, like those that are often in restorative narratives, they feel more mobilized to be engaged with their communities,” Tenore said. “Positive psychology research shows that resilience is an acquired skill. Our hypothesis is if the media were to tell more stories of resilience and recovery, then maybe they could teach communities what it means to be resilient.”

Tenore said the idea of restorative journalism stemmed from Curtiss Clark, the editor of the Newtown Bee, and his experience covering the Sandy Hook shootings. Clark wanted to find out how his paper could not only report what happened but also how he could help his community find the road toward recovery.

I think people’s appetite for news is changing. With that change, come the opportunities to tell the full story — not just telling the stories of what happened, but really looking at what’s possible.

“Some people might look at that think well, would that mean that the paper would be biased or that they would branch off into advocacy?,” Tenore said. “But he really believed that they could tell true stories that would help the community and the paper could do something constructive for them.”

IVOH creates tools that help journalists use the concept of restorative narrative in their own coverage. IVOH is developing a list of questions journalists can use to help them tell these kinds of stories, and it plans to publish and release a restorative narrative workbook to newsrooms across the country.

With limited resources and time, Tenore said she understands why it’s easy to cover crime or tragedy and quickly move on to the next story. But IVOH suggests journalists create a log of the traumatic stories they’ve covered, and revisit the story months or even years later.

Positive change through stories of resilience

“In many ways, it could help them to take a more balanced and more holistic approach to their coverage,” Tenore said. “It could potentially enhance the work that they do and maybe make them feel more fulfilled in terms of what they’re doing as storytellers.”

In December, IVOH launched the Restorative Narrative Fellowship program. Five journalists from across the country get six months, and a stipend, to find and tell stories of restorative narrative in their communities. IVOH works with each of the fellows to craft their stories — and discusses the benefits and potential pitfalls of the genre with each fellow.

In June, journalists, fellows and media professionals will gather in Haines Falls, New York, for the organization’s annual Restorative Narrative Summit.

IVOH hopes it can expand its community to include all kinds of digital storytellers, Tenore said, which will only bring a more diverse collection of voices to join in on the narrative.

“The more that we can explain the impact that these stories have,” she said, “the more likely that people are going to want to tell these narratives.”

Nicole Ogrysko

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